Papers

FRIDAY

KEYNOTES (9-10:45)

Thinking Gardens, Cultivating Slow Time—Paul A. Harris

This talk uses gardens as a ground for cultivating a philosophy of slow time. “Thinking gardens” refers to both gardens that think, i.e., a philosophy expressed by gardens, and a thinking inextricably bound to gardens—thinking in, about, with, and through gardens. The presentation unfolds concepts and contemplative practices of slow time through a series of virtual visits to specific garden sites. In the first part, a comparative perspective on slow time is developed by examining Chinese gardens through a Daoist lens, and reading Euro-American land art sites and gardens in the context of contemporary cosmology and Anthropocene eco-philosophy. The second part features an analysis of Taiwan-based playwright Stan Lai’s site-specific theatre work Nightwalk in the Chinese Garden, performed at the Garden of Flowing Fragrance (Huntington Library and Gardens, Los Angeles) in fall 2018. The talk concludes by comparing slow time in Lai’s work to J.T. Fraser’s concept of “eotemporality,” an archaic, uncanny experience of a “two-wayness of time.” Engaging Fraser’s work builds a bridge between this conference and the ISST conference that follows it at LMU; Fraser was the Founder of the ISST and his work exemplifies the interdisciplinary perspectives and cross-cultural dialogues on time that continue today.

Time, Chance and Fate in Early Daoist Texts—Lisa Raphals

Chance is an important but under-studied concept in early China, and it is closely linked to understandings of time and timing. I examine how understandings of time and timing intersect and interact with early Daoist concepts of chance and fate. In the Zhuangzi and elsewhere, accounts of time and timing intersect with claims that a true sage is characterized by the ability to respond efficaciously to random events, in contrast to rigid systems of text-based learning. This first idea appears in the Daode jing and Zhuangzi and is further developed in the thought of Wang Chong.

Dao Defines Time: Health for All Beings—Herve Lechouarn

To pursue the initial state of things, the origin of the primordial chaos of the universe, has been a human task from high antiquity. Through the observation of the stars, the movement of the planets, and the acquisition of celestial knowledge, ancient masters deciphered the origins of the cosmos. Little by little this wisdom was transmitted to more people, so they could read the messages from heaven and alleviate complications of life on earth. The measurements of the sky form our world, they direct our time, and determine changes in our nature. The ancients speak of Dao (consciousness, space, the source of the celestial movements), and considered it as the master of the laws of nature. Dao is the natural process per se, and our skill works on the meticulous and deep study of this process by creating theories, systems, and doctrines. When the Yellow Emperor asks his teacher about Dao, Qibo replies by outlining the universal climate patterns based on different types of cosmic energy which in turn have a major impact on human health and well-being. Therefore, it is essential to understand how and when different energies reach earth, how they affect the human body, and how people can prevent or modify their impact. To understand the principles of health, we must study the ancient medical classics and properly understand the organization of time.

SESSION 1A: EARLY DAOIST THOUGHT (11-12:45)

Pursuing Oneness: Yi and Its Cosmo-Political Function in Early Daoist Texts—Sharon Small

The concept of the One or oneness gained adherence in the Warring States period, a period known for political chaos and cruel warfare. With this background, people sought for political unification. To justify political unification among warring states along with the rule of a single entity, thinkers began to search for the principle of unity in nature, thereby emphasizing the concept of oneness. The notion of “oneness” involves a single principle pertaining all natural phenomena, while at the same time it also designates unification of several different forces. This cosmological notion is then employed in the human sphere: in the socio-political aspect it unfolds as seeking for one ruler under heaven; on the epistemological level it is expressed by “one mind” (yixin一心) that can comprehend oneness in the world. I propose to examine the concept of “oneness” as it appears in three excavated manuscripts: 1) Taiyi sheng shui太一生水 (Great One Generated Water), 2) the Mawangdui Laozi, and 3) the Fanwu liuxing凡物流形 (All Things Flow into Form) of the Shanghai Museum cache. The attempt is to trace early modes of thought and the way human beings and their ideal social organization were perceived as something that should emulate the natural, bringing all the myriad things and phenomena to one coherent “scheme.”

Advance and Retreat in Accordance with the Way of Heaven”: Time Issues in the Daode jing—Yiying Jiao

“Advance and retreat in accordance with the Way of Heaven” (gongcheng shentui tianzhidao 功成身退天之道) is one of the most famous verses in the Daode jing. It has been interpreted in many different ways and on various levels. This paper looks at these different levels of interpretations from the concept of time in the Daode jing to define, determine and translate these key concepts, and aims to find out how advancing and retreating are consistent with the Way of Heaven from the dimension of time embedded in these concepts. It is found that advancing is not only determined by the event itself, but also by the condition of the person and the overall environment of the situation, while retreating is not a pessimistic but a neutral concept that assures success. The time element embedded in the two concepts is relative but always needs to match the natural cycle, that is the Way of Heaven.

Concepts of Time and Cultivation in Early Daoist Texts—Andrej Fech

The present talk explores different concepts of time as presented in early Daoist texts and their relation to the topic of self-cultivation. The texts discussed here are the main traditional representatives of the school, such as the Laozi and Zhuangzi, as well as some recently excavated manuscripts that show close affinity with Daoist philosophy, such as The Yellow Emperor’s Four Classics (Huangdi sijing 黃帝四經) (Mawagdui), The Great One Gives Birth to Water (Taiyi sheng shui 太一生水) (Guodian), The Primordial Constant (Heng xian恒先), All Things Flow into Form (Fanwu lixing 凡物流形) etc. Among the various models of the world’s gestation these texts offer, I focus mainly on those expressed by means of movement (and, by extension, time), such as “arising” (zuo ), “emerging” (chu ), “flowing” (liu ), and, above all, “returning” (fan , gui ). It is especially the latter which informs the “flow” of time with circularity, often conceived as one of the characteristic traits of the Chinese worldview. I explore the question as to how “circularity” of time influences understanding of self-cultivation as well as the significance of the other, less “circular” concepts of time in this process.

The Gate of Potentiality: Time, Skills and Personal Perfection in Daoist Thought—Galia Dor

In the most general sense, a gate constitute a unique symbol of liminality in (arguably) any culture, however, in Chinese and Daoist thought, it is particularly so; the unique characteristics of the gate as the symbol of being in between, emptiness, the meeting of opposites, and more, constitute together a singularity of time and space, which, as inferred from numerous ancient Chinese texts, the Yijing and the Daode jing, to name a few, embodies potentiality; in order to realize this potentiality, one practices certain skills of “seizing the moment” and “being in unity” —all related and part of the idea of wuwei dao. The Dao and the Daoist idea of the gate are inseparable metaphors that are connected through efficacy and the cultivation of the ‘ten thousand things and all phenomena’; and indeed, as in the natural world, so it is for the Daoist sage: time and space play a key role in the pursuit of personal perfection, internal transformation, decision-making, and propensity.

                                                SESSION 1B: INTERNAL CULTIVATION (11-12:45)

道教人体内经图与二十四节气的时间序列关联与实践 — 李俊涛 与 夏小燕 // The “Chart of Passageways” of the Daoist Body and the 24 Divisions of Time—Li Chuntao & Xia Xiaoyan)

道教内经图不仅是修真内炼时身心能量聚合与释放的内丹图像,它还暗藏着导引实践的层次性和递进性,并且将天地、宇宙的信息巧妙地存放在与二十四节气相关联的时间序列里。本文旨在梳理道教历史中具有代表性的养生内炼图像与内经图的传承关系,进而详细解读这套严密的养生内观网络中的关窍与图像隐语,以及与节气、卦易时空的关联。

丹道图像的时间之维 — 杨贺淞 // The Dimension of Time in the Internal Cultivation Charts—Yang Hesong

丹道图像是道教炼养体系视觉化表达的载体,内蕴着道教宇宙论、形神论、性命论,亦是道教⾝体观的直观呈现。作为⼀种道教⽂化载体的丹道图像,对抽象时间的理解与刻画是极具特殊性的,体现了道教视觉⽂化的独特魅⼒。从时间的角度看,丹道图像实质上是⼀种时间感知活动的仪式性表述,⽽不是一种将时间客体化的抽象性思辨,其所表达的是在逆与顺、分与合、物与道的仪式关联中“时间性地”炼养实践。对丹道图像时间之维的合理阐释,不仅有助于我们对道教养⽣⽂化的深⼊认识,更有助于为现代年轻⼈提供⼀种对时间碎⽚化问题的解决之道。因此,本⽂尝试从时间的维度切入,从丹道图像中提炼出具有对现代⽣活仍可资利⽤的养⽣实践内容。

胎息研究: 天帝教的個案研究 — 李翠珍 // Embryo Respiration: Concrete Studies by Tiandi Jiao—Li Tsui-chen

金丹的修煉主要是出於長生不死的神仙思想,自古代神話傳說中就有長生不老的觀念,如后羿從西王母處得到不死之藥,嫦娥偷吃後便飛奔到月宮,成為月中仙子。在戰國時期,燕國和齊國一帶的方士們出於原始的神仙信仰,即開始探求服食仙藥而成仙的途徑。氣運來到三期末劫,涵靜老人為了救劫,靜坐由傳統的丹鼎大法有為法轉變為自然無為法,修煉出曠古未有的四十位封靈,其傳承弟子至今也有十三位修成封靈。論其靜坐於身體產生變化有馬陰藏相、斬赤龍及胎息等等境界,然涵靜老人修煉的目的不是為了長生不死、亦不是為了成仙成佛,而是為了挽救浩劫。歷代真人修成胎息者,有王真、張果老、陳泥凡祖師及武元照。密宗有南懷瑾、范繼陶上師、彗華及敏智師父。天帝教方面有涵靜老人及其弟子蕭同奮、黃同奮、蔡同奮、邱同奮…等等皆有修到胎息境界。本文探討的蔡同奮曾於民國103年不慎落水大安溪,泡在水裏昏睡良久,待醒來時眼睛一張開才發現整個人處在河裏,依筆者十餘年來以身心體驗法訪談丹道實修的經驗,若無修到外呼吸停止行內呼吸之狀況是無法逃過水劫,故推論其功力已達到胎息之境界,因此深入個案訪談,赫然發現蔡同奮的胎息次第與涵靜老人頗有雷同之處,就是顛覆道教傳統的修煉程序,先胎息再馬陰藏相,茲配合文獻資料加以分析.

SESSION 1C: WORKSHOP (11-12:45)

Primordial Wuji Qigong Meditation—Michael Rinaldini

This workshop explores an alchemical form of Daoist practice called Primordial Wuji Qigong Meditation. The practice is Daoist Cosmological thought on the return process of creation from the Heaven and Earth realm of the Five Elements reversing in time through the realms of Yin and Yang to the core Wuji realm of stillness. From there we play in the field of Primordial Chaos, outside of time, in the formless Dao. The practice will consist of gentle qigong movements, like Rolling The Ball, Wuji Palms Facing Heaven, and Open-Close. At the heart of the exercise we will rest in the forgetting state of Zuowang meditation, allowing ourselves to realize our timeless Original Natures.

Michael Rinaldini (Li Changdao) is a 22nd generation Longmen priest and advanced qigong teacher (National Qigong Association), director of the Qigong & Daoist Training Center in Sebastopol, Callif., and founder of the American Dragon Gate Lineage. He offers a Qigong Certification program of 150 and 400 hours in Medical Qigong both locally and internationally. See www.qigongdragon.com.

SESSION 2A: PRACTICAL YIJING (14-15:45)

Yijing Inner Transformation: Causality and Black Holes of Time—Cristina Bertrand

The Yijing is the most important book in the world. Richard Wilhelm, its first translator into German, called it a major work in universal literature. Unlike other books studied for their wisdom, why is the Yijing practically unknown in China and largely unfamiliar in Western countries? One reason is that it has been classified as a book of divination, when it is not. Another cause for its neglect is a major misinterpretation created by C. G. Jung, who had not studied the Yijing in depth and tried to fit it into his synchronicity theory. I contend that, on the contrary, the Yijing is a book of science, wisdom and ethics. Therefore, it must be studied using those disciplines as guidance. Based on binary and vortex-based mathematics, the Yijing adheres to the scientific laws of cause and effect. According to those laws, it can predict the future through the black holes of time, thereby facilitating inner transformation and providing human beings with the key to their own destiny.

The Yijing: Stepping Into the River of Time—Ken Cohen

The Yijing is based on a system of correspondences in which phenomena are not only linked to each other, as in Five Phases Theory, but also across time. The text has numerous references to the importance of cultivating a mystical state of consciousness in which such hidden connections may be perceived and interpreted. The diviner uses ritual procedures to enter a river of time, as it were, in which the current flows both from past to future順流and future to past逆流. In this paper, I introduce how the Yijing describes the ancient diviner’s state of mind and explores Daoist and Western scientific theories that suggest how and why the Yijing works as an effective divinatory tool.

Synchronicity: A Modern Interpretation of Time Sense in ZhouyiJuan Zhao

This paper attempts to trace how the Swiss psychologist Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961) proposed the term "Synchronicity", analyze its relationship with Zhouyi, the Book of Changes, and points out that the "Synchronicity" could be a good interpretation of time (Shi, ) in Zhouyi. At the same time, I will illustrate the significance and possible contribution of Zhouyi in solving the basic problems of human being in the contemporary world.

SESSION 2B: THE DAODE JING (14-15:45)

道德经首章的哲学与科学内涵—钱凤仪 // The First Chapter of the Daode jing in Philosophy and Science—Qian Fengyi

世界上最重要的两部经典一部《圣经》,一部是《道德经》。《圣经》为人类提供了普遍的和信仰意义上的道德原则,而《道德经》为人类提供了科学的和理性意义上的道德准则。之所以这么说,是因为《道德经》中的每一句话,都是从《易经》所提供的逻辑模型中演绎出来的。而基于“太极”而来的《易经》,它在理论上是符合现代宇宙学大爆炸理论的。因此,《易经》在哲学的本体问题上,毫无疑问是正确的:那就是中国古代哲学认为世界的存在产生了时间和有物理定律的空间,而不是象西方古典哲学家所认为的那样——世界如何在时间中产生的,因此形成了二律背反和阶级斗争促进了社会发展这样的理论怪物。

道家治理的時間觀: 以老子為始 — 沈明昌 // The View of Time in Daoist Governance: Beginning with the Laozi—Shen Ming-Chang

時間是一種維度,人從有限的時間去做取捨是時間的管理;但面對人我、事物的先後關係之價值判斷與取捨,以其產生的種種後續影響之對治的動態過程,則可稱之為治理的時間觀。老子在道德經中形容聖人:「微妙玄通,深不可識」。真要明白道家的體道者,也只有以各種狀態去勉強的形容,例如:渾沌而無法分辨卻又洞燭先機而安然謙虛。體道者永遠能守住自然的生機。時間的先後產生有、無的問題,「有」與「無」是萬事萬物的本源,也是老子思想中的重要支撐。「無」並不是物質,但也不是「空無所有」。本文將從《老子》出發,以道家的觀點,探討體道者如何在時間的向度上,從無至有的過程中,對待人群、事物與大自然而成其理想的聖人之治。

老子“三宝“发微 —焦国成 // An Examination of Laozi’s “Three Treasures”—Jiao Guocheng

老子说:“我有三宝,持而保之;一曰慈;二曰俭;三曰不敢为天下先。慈,故能勇。俭,故能广。不敢为天下先,故能成器长。”(67章)“慈”“俭”“不敢为天下先”既然被老子称为“三宝”,可见其地位多么重要。然而,后人对于这“三宝”的理解却大相径庭。比如,詹姆斯理雅各(James Legge) 把“慈”译为gentleness ,把“俭”译为economy, 把“不敢为天下先”译为shrinking from taking precedence of others。亚瑟∙大卫∙韦利 (Arthur Waley) 把“慈”译为Pity把“俭”译为frugality把“不敢为天下先”译为refusal to be “foremost of all things under heaven.”林语堂Lin Yutang把“慈”译为love, 把“俭”译为Never too much,把“不敢为天下先”译为Never be the first in the world。为什么这三位出色的翻译家对“三宝”的理解如此不同?本文意在探讨老子‘三宝’所含的真正意蕴。

抱一体道:道德经如何超越生死的大限 —黄靖雅 // Embracing Oneness: How the Daode jing Envisions the Transcendence of Death—Huang Ching-Ya

生是偶然,死却是必然。如何跳脱死亡这个必然的大限,历来不少追求永生者以《道德经》为母本,发展出不少养生良方。但《道德经》文本所提供的对策,是以「抱一」,亦即合于自然规律的哲学观,建构出一套听任肉体自然衰败,精神却得以长存的长生观。得以完全体现此一理论者,《道德经》称之为「圣人」。「天之道,利而不害」,因此圣人以王者的大位,在政治上进行利益万民之实。圣人肉身虽死,却能以利益众人的德泽留名后亦即《道德经》真正的长生观点。换言之,《道德经》对于「长生」(寿)的解读,与晚出的《庄子》,尤其是东汉以后发展出的修道成仙思想有本质上的差异。

SESSION 2C: WORKSHOP (14-15:45)

Tai Chi Chih Shen Gong: Chinese Internal Alchemy for Health, Longevity, and Personal DevelopmentCarl Totton

The capacity for self-regulation to promote states of good health, mindfulness, inner peace, and relaxation are increasingly important as strategies for reducing the stress of modern life. The ancient Chinese developed tools to address these challenges centuries ago and have perfected them ever since. The Tai Chi Chih Shen Gong system is a particularly powerful one which is unmatched in its capacity to foster deep inner health, relaxation, mental serenity, and longevity in only a few minutes of practice per day. It is an ideal system for self cultivation where the benefits continue to accrue and increase over the course of a lifetime, one which is likely to become greatly extended through the practice. Life spans beyond 100 years have been achieved by many practitioners of this powerful yogic and meditative system. Through an experiential approach, attendees will learn a daily practice method involving a progressive sequence of nine exercises of standing, moving, and seated forms of qigong and meditation.

Carl Totton is the founder of the Taoist Institute and professor of Psychology at Phillips Graduate University in Chatsworth, Calif. He has studied Chinese healing, spiritual, and martial arts for over 55 years and is licensed as a clinical and educational psychologist as well as a certified Reiki master, Taoist priest, and qigong and Chinese martial arts instructor. He has worked in many clinical settings including private practice, hospitals, community mental health and drug treatment clinics, K-12 schools, and a college counseling center. He teaches hes classes in all traditional Chinese internal martial arts as well as Taoist and Buddhist qigong, meditation, Tuina, and medical qigong.

SESSION 3A: MODERNITY (16-17:30)

時空與易道:台灣唯心聖教的易學運用 張慶文

Space, Time, and I Ching: I Ching Application of Taiwan Weixin Shengjiao—Ching-Wen Chang

This paper explores how The New Religion of the World Taiwan Weixin Shengjiao applies I Ching in various daily-life issues in correlation with the change of space and time. In the past, there were numerous studies and publications about I Ching with much attention on the perspectives of philosophy and Neo-Confucianism, but only few discussions related to the change of space and time. Therefore, this study aims to analyze and interpret the I Ching divination results of practical daily-life issues in correlation with the universal change of space and time based on the application principles of Chinese orthodoxy culture I Ching, revealed by the founder of Taiwan Weixin Shengjiao Grand Master Hunyuan Chanshi, and to demonstrate how to apply ancient wisdom in modern life. Through the verification of the divination results, this study illustrated how the ancient wisdom, I Ching, can be applied in modern life to take precautions to prevent the problems in advance when considers the variables of space and time. To decrease the unnecessary losses and troubles will help everyone to be safe and peace, and that is also the truth experts and scholars are eagerly looking for.

台湾-中华唯心圣教的道学研究 // Daoist Studies among Taiwan Weixin Shengjiao—Michael Xiang

夲研究,系对唯心圣教和混元心法的“首次”研究,并于国际论坛中公开宣导。它包括如下要点: (一)三教之“道”与唯心圣教的“道”哲学意涵解析;(二)唯心圣教的“道”学与中华文化道统之易经心法的关系;(三)混元心法与易经心法之“同”心“异”域及其宗教学突破和意义分析;

2011-2016年中国道教图书出版综论 — 张丽萍 // New Publications on Daoism in China 2011-2016—Zhang Liping

道教是中国本土宗教,图书出版名目繁多,从国家图书馆查询就多达58000个条目。从图书出版的数据分析,不同时期的道教著作显示出不同的特点,80年代之前的著述主要在对古代道教与古籍的解读与概述;道教研究著作真正兴起是从80年代开始的。本文主要针对20112016年期间道教图书出版的特点做一个整体讨论。

SESSION 3B: CONTEMPORARY RELEVANCE (16-17:30)

The Chinese Body Clock—Sylvia Schroer (Video)

The concept of an “Organ Clock” in Chinese medicine is a useful tool in understanding why certain activities go better at certain hours during the day. According to Chinese medicine, qi moves through the body’s meridians and organs in a regular cycle. Every two hours it is strongest in a particular organ and its functions within the body. This affects physical function-ing as well as mind and emotions, so that it matters when we sleep, wake, eat, and interact socially. For example, a bedtime of 10:30 pm (at the latest) is advised, so you are asleep from 11pm to 3 am, when the Liver and Gallbladder regulate qi, process emotions, balance hormones, and detoxify the body. This is important for maintaining health, especially as we get older. This new video by a British health practitioner presents the system in great detail, affording contemporary relevance of traditional methods and teachings.

Internal Alchemy for the West—Mark Bartosh

I sat my first retreat with Master Wang Liping in Dalian in 2011 after having practiced under the guidance of the late Dr. Samuel Sagan for over twenty years. Having worked hard to open my energy body and consciousness, I delved deeply into the intricate practices of Daoist internal alchemy with its complex experiences and transformations. The work has been life altering and created significant change in myself: the way I experience life and the world, the way I live in my body, the way I interact with others, and the way I engage in internal alchemy. It has much to contribute to modern life and can make a significant difference as it is more and more adapted to Western culture.

The Mad Monk Manifesto—Monk Yun Rou

The Manifesto is an in-your-face, up-your-nose clarion call for inner transformation and outer revolution. In plain-spoken, provocative, instigatory language, it applies Daoist ideas to mainstream society and culture. Like a stone dropped in a pond, it examines the traditional process of Daoist transformation, beginning with internal work and proceeding, to shifts in community, politics, and environmental preservation. Already the subject of more than 40 media interviews and wide-ranging discussions online, it is a Daoist bee in the American bonnet. In this presentation, Yun Rou will read from the book and take questions and relish discussion. Monk Yun Rou is the author of eighteen books. His award-winning fiction has been optioned for film in both Beijing and Hollywood. Along with the Dalai Lama, he was a finalist for the Books For A Better Life Award in 2003. A Daoist for forty years, his work has been featured in Newsweek, Parade, The Wall Street Journal and many other national publications, and on many popular websites. In recent years, all his work surrounds Daoist themes and ideas, as well as Chinese history and culture.

EXTRA: MUSICAL PERFORMANCE (17:30-18:00)

Nüdan zhige女丹之歌 (Songs of Women’s Alchemy, 2019), composed by Joan Huang 黄琼Performed by Anne Harley, soprano (Scripps College), Maggie Parkins , cello (Pomona College), plus electronics

Nüdan zhige was commissioned by Anne Harley from composer Joan Huang for her ongoing project “Voices of the Pearl,” which commissions, performs, and records contemporary classical settings of texts by and about female esoteric practitioners from all world traditions. The Los Angeles Chinese-American composer Joan Huang set original text in Mandarin describing Nüdan, the female practice of qigong, in 18 movements, corresponding to steps described in A Compiled List of Nüdan Poetry (recorded in Qianzhong Buddhist Temple, proofread by Wan Jiang and Chen Yingning, July 23, 2016). Performed by soprano, cello, and electronic sound, Songs of Nüdan joins several other commissions in the Voices of the Pearl project illuminating original Daoist texts attributed to early Chinese female practitioners: Sun Bu’er, Cao Wenyi, and Hu Yin.

SATURDAY

SESSION 4A: THE ZHUANGZI (9-10:45)

On Zhuangzi’s Concepts of Self and Time—Wennie Wang

This paper discusses Zhuangzi’s concept of time through exploring its concept of self. Zhuangzi’s philosophy, known as a life philosophy, is about helping individuals to break all the conditions in their minds, transcend all the distinctions, and reach the state of Oneness which is the highest spiritual state of individual. This paper first discusses what is self in Zhuangzi’s philosophy. And it examines in detail how the self affects individuals way of looking at themselves and the reality. Secondl it discusses Zhuangzi’s concept of time which is based on the concept of self—the individuals’ way of looking at themselves and the reality. Third, it explores further on the realm of no-self and no-time in Zhuangzi’s philosophy. It argues that this is the reality of Oneness with no time, and no absolute distinctions. And it is also the highest spiritual state the individuals can reach. It is hoped that from the analysis above, it provides an alternative perspective of understanding the concept of time, and it also shows that the time concept is closely related to the concept of self in Zhuangzi. When one is in the realm of no-self and no-time, one has reached the spiritual state of Oneness.

Hundun Never Died: The Simultaneous Existence of Wu and You in the ZhuangziI—Roy Porat

In many of the more philosophical passages of the Zhuangzi, the text refers simultaneously to two levels of being: the phenomenological world (you) and empty latency (wu). It depicts two versions of liberation. These two methods of overcoming duality, however, do not share the same status in the text, as the more radical version- renouncing the world of things—is presented as superior. As I would like to show, many aspects of the “Qiwulun” seem to imply directly at this dual mode of presentation, including the dual-question formula (“is there really X? or is not X?”), some of the famous episodes such as “three in the morning” and the tale of the men of old, and the metaphorical contrast between light and darkness that reappears throughout the text; in fact, as I would like to show, the long discussion that constitutes the core of the chapter can be seen as one long attack on the realist version of liberation, which holds that duality does exist. As a consequence, some important concepts that are introduced in the text such as the hinge of Dao (daoshu) or the ideal of enlightenment (yiming), were in fact—according to the suggested reading—not authentic Zhuangzian ideas, but rather examples of the less effective liberation within the world of phenomenon, that were brought up by the author of the text in order to advocate his own version of still and changeless state.

The Literary Casting of Time Anomalies in Zhuangzi—Thomas Michael

The Zhuangzi offers a rich selection of personal encounter episodes presented in the traditional Chinese format of “historical records” between historically-attested personages and other figures who are creatively conjured up by the author based on mythological prototypes. In these encounter episodes, the first set of characters participate in a mode of temporality that the Zhuangzi calls “the small year,” and the second set of characters, some of whom are even talking trees, are set in a mode of temporality called “the great year.” In their encounters with each other, we witness a converging of these two temporalities, both of which are themselves situated in a cosmic realm of Daoist imagination where “no one lives longer than a child who dies prematurely, and Pengzu [the Chinese Methuselah] died young.” This paper explores the literary casting of the cosmic structures of these two temporalities in their mutual emergence from a wider conception of a Dao-based cosmology, and it concludes by a gaze on the role this played on what would soon become the Daoist quest for immortality.

SESSION 4B: POPULAR PRACTICE (9-10:45)

汉以下西王母信仰的道教化发展 汪小洋 // The Daoist Development of the Belief in the Queen Mother of the West after the Han—Wang Xiaoyang

西王母信仰产生于汉代,当时的西王母具有主流社会接受的仙化西王母和民间社会传播的神化西王母两个面貌。汉以下西王母道教化,产生了三个变化:其一,神化西王母进入了主流社会的信仰领域,它成为道教神系的一位尊神,并因此而出现了官方支持的祭祀活动,成为官方道教化的西王母;其二,仙化西王母则进入了民间信仰领域,民间故事的成分日益增多,成为民间道教化的西王母;其三,西王母的居住地昆仑山向符号化方向发展。神化西王母、仙化西王母以及昆仑山的符号化,构成了汉以下西王母道教化的主要内容。

道教与明清苏南民间生活 孔庆茂 // Daoism and Popular Life in Southern Jiangsu under the Ming and QingKong Qingmao

土生土长的中国道教最契合中国民间的思维方式。受道教各种神仙灵怪的传说,苏南民间宗教信仰非常发达,有极富地域特色的道教传说,如各种水母水怪等地方性的神灵及与治水的英雄人物,还有许多城陷的传说。这些折射出苏南地区人们水患危胁与宗数需求,在一些宗教活动如祭祀与做会讲经中体现出来,体现了道教在明清时代的民间的普及与影响。

形、养生与精神蜕变: 道教女性的养生术对现代女性的借鉴意义 王宗英 // Nourishing Life and Spiritual Transformation: The Significance of Daoist Women's Ways of Health Maintenance for Modern WomenWang Zongying

道教对女性美持关注和推崇的态度,这是道教文化值得充分肯定的地方,基于对女性美的肯定和追求,在道教养生方术中,形成了专门的养形术,如服食调养、导引按摩、五行之道等等,这些养生术与道家的精神修炼相融合,形成了丰富的养生智慧,最终成为深刻的生命意识和微妙的女性意识。这对于身处高速发展的现代社会的女性来说有一定的借鉴意义。借鉴道教养生文化中的精华进行适当的服食调养、导引按摩,将“天人合一”与“道法自然”的自然和谐观念引入到日常生活中,性命双修,心身并调,可以增加智慧、缓解压力、平衡内心,达到转化气质、养颜美生、精神超越的效果。

SESSION 4C: WORKSHOP (9-10:45)

Time Is of the Essence—Bette Korman

Watch time, feel time, breathe time, walk with time. Witness how time is embedded in all body, earth and universal landscapes. You are invited to participate in "time honored" meditations using poetry, painting, movement and sound. Time Is of the Essence” is a multi-sensory workshop and exhibit that asks you to join an interactive journey that explores the connection of Dao and time. You practice traditional kinhin breath-walking that will reveal your personal “body clock” through graphic and bell ringing notations of rhythmic modalities echoing throughout the environment. Then you reflect upon their experience by composing a “slow time” three-line haiku and a “fast time” collaborative renga linked poem. Inspired by the surrounding “Walk through Time” exhibit, you create your own ink painting, in a “making-your-mark moment,” using brushes and brooms. You will also generate a Rinzai-style picture poem, to be displayed in a large group mural. All these illuminating experiences demonstrate the plasticity of the human brain that can morph simple modes of expression into deeper, unpredictable perceptions, providing an exquisite access to the layered and fascinating world around you.

Bette Korman has been a student and practitioner of the Daoist way for close to half a century. She has studied with numerous scholars and mentors from ashrams and monasteries in Southeast Asia and the Americas, garnering wisdom that she applied to the founding of The Children's Museum of Manhattan and the Manhattan Laboratory Museum. As an award winning artist she has exhibited internationally and is an Emeritus Associate Professor at Pratt Institute. Currently she is the Founding Director of Universal Energy Design, where she teaches her “Creativichi” pedagogy, based upon her soon to be published book New Nature: Natural Law and Dis/order.

SESSION 5A: MEDITATION AND INTERNAL ALCHEMY(11-12:45)

Quanzhen Patriarch-Master Qiu Chuji and the Ancient Awl of 700 Years: Daoism, Buddhism, Meditation and Hibernation—Stephen Eskildsen

Famous Quanzhen Daoist master Qiu Chuji (1143-1227), according to the Zhenxian zhizhi yulu, once stated: “A person of old has said, ‘First your thoughts stop. Second, your breathing stops. Third, your pulse stops. Fourth, there is Complete Extinction, and you enter into the Great Stability (meditative trance).’ You do not interact at all with things, much like the ancient awl of 700-years.” This statement describes how mental activity, breathing, and pulse can be progressively brought to suspension while in meditation. But who/what is the source quoted here by Master Qiu, and what is “the ancient awl of 700 years”? The source cited by Master Qiu cannot be traced definitively. However, several Buddhist sutras, including the Avatamsaka Sutra, use the term Trance of Complete Extinction to refer to a condition where the meditator appears as if dead. “The ancient awl of 700 years,” refers almost certainly to Buddhist monk Huichi—younger brother of the famous Huiyuan (334-416)—who in 1113 was allegedly found meditating inside a tree (for a duration of roughly 700 years!). Master Qiu thus seems to imply that a body can stay alive for centuries in a hibernating state reached through meditation.

Time and Reversing Time in the Internal Cultivation of the Fanhuan Gong—Yanxia Zhao

Fanhuan gong 返还功or Reversing Gongfu is an internal alchemy cultivation tradition thrived from the southern Daoist school. According to abbot Shen Yuewu, a transmittor of this practice, fanhuan means to return to the original state of life, that is, to allow a long life while maintaining a child-like appearance. Fanhuan gong consolidates essence (jing) as its main cultivation strategy. On the one hand, it works with special breath techniques to foster and nourish True Yin; on the other, it uses a special exercise called Raising Kidney Yin to strengthen kidney function. This paper explores how time and its reversal are expected and practiced in this particular school and presents its special features in comparison with general related practices in the Southern School of Daoism, the original source of the practice, as well as other methods of internal alchemy in the northern tradition.

Astronomy and Time in Internal Alchemy as Seen in Its Body Charts—Lokmane Benaicha

The Xiuzhen tu, along with the Neijing tu, is an important chart of the human body illustrating the principles of intenral alchemy. It is complex with a precise presentation of the energetic physiology of the organs and also important for its clear expression of the fundamental concept of the interaction between heaven and humanity. The chart presents the links between astronomy, the Yijing, time, and human beings. For example, it works with the 24 solar periods and 28 lunar mansions, related to both time and transformation.

SESSION 5B: ICONOGRAPHY (11-12:45)

汉晋“舍利”图像新证朱浒 // New Evidence on Images of Relics from the Han and Jin Dynasties—Zhu Hu

在汉晋之间的墓室壁画或画像石中,偶尔可以见到带有明确为“舍利”或“猞猁”榜题的图像。2009 年西高穴村二号墓被认定为曹操墓,在公安部门收缴回来的画像石中,一个类牛含珠的神兽旁出现了“舍利也”的榜题,明确了这一动物的形象。基于早年在和林格尔、敦煌佛爷庙湾的同类榜题,结合汉魏典籍与早期佛经的记载,利用“格套”理论,我们增补了汉画中的二十余例“舍利”图像。我们认为“舍利”是汉画神兽体系中的重要组成部分,主要分布在陕北地区,同时在山东、河南、苏北、四川、内蒙、甘肃等地均有发现,兴起于东汉时期,衰落于西晋,是汉晋时期早期道教思想、谶纬思想与外来的佛教信仰相互结合的产物。

中国西部墓室壁画遗存中的道教图像 吴思佳 // Traces of Daoist Images in Tomb Murals of Western ChinaWu Sijia

中国墓室壁画是中国传统文化中的一个重要的宗教美术领域,道教信仰也曾经对其发展有所影响。西部是中国墓室壁画遗存的集中地,同时也是道教发展的重要地区,本文从墓室壁画的遗存图像看墓室壁画所受到的道教影响,并梳理出一些发展特征。

文伯仁方壶图的图像结构及其渊源 姜永帅 // The Iconographic Structure and Its Origin of Wen Boren's Fanghu WorksJiang Yongshuai
文伯仁《方壶图》 绘于 1563 年。该作品是表现神话中海上三山之一“方壶” 的仙境山水。 其画面主要由两个图式组成: 一是画面中央海岛部分“仙山楼阁” 图式;一是整幅画面所构成的“海中仙岛” 图式。现有的研究主要将眼光投射到“海中仙岛”的图式,并认为这一图式受到了文征明所绘《金山图》 的影响,从而完全忽视了仙山楼阁图式在《方壶图》中的呈现。本研究首先梳理了“仙山楼阁” 图式的来源, 并分别考察“仙山楼阁” 的主要母题仙山、宫观、灵芝云与松树的图像谱系, 最终诸种母题何时形成一个稳定的表现仙境山水的图式。 进一步比较文伯仁《方壶图》与《栖霞山图》,认为文伯仁《方壶图》 仙山楼阁的图式可能受到其 1563 年客居南京栖霞山时所作《栖霞山图》的影响。唐镜蓬莱纹镜山水题材与传李唐《大江浮玉》等图像显示, “海中仙岛”的图式很早便已存在。 吴门诸家“海中仙岛” 图式大概也是这一传统的继续。另外, 《方壶图》 三角形的尖山,似乎更与文伯仁学习“米氏云山” 有关。

清末民初春牛图的图像结构及其文化渊源 阮怡帆 // The Structure and Origin of the Oxherding Pictures in Qing and Republican ChinaRuan Yifan

春牛图是表现农耕题材的民间年画。本文旨在梳理清末至民初时期,“春牛图”年画在这个时期,地域的传流与发展。本研究梳理春牛图的图像来源,分别考察主要母题财神、南极仙翁、和合二仙、八仙等富有道教文化寓意的图像,最终围绕诸母题形成一系列春牛图年画图像。从春牛图的图像结构来看,受西方经济、文化、艺不同术的影响,其构图、布局、设色、主题内容都产生了重要的变化,富有时代的气息。本文探寻这一阶段春牛图的文化渊源,其主旨反映人们期盼和气生财、吉祥如意的美好愿望。

SESSION 5C: WORKSHOP ( 11-12:45)

Tai Chi: A Battlefield Survival System—Monk Yun Rou

Despite the spin-mill of the American New Age movement, the appropriation of the system as a dance, performance art, Olympic competition, cinematic treasure trove, meditation system, and basis for fall-prevention programs in hospitals nationwide, tai chi is actually a gritty combat art. Its original purpose was not to entertain or enlighten, not to provide elderly people with a pastime, and not to give the exercise averse a reason to turn off the TV and get off the couch; it was a system designed to help (often conscripted) warriors return safely to their homes and families. In this workshop, Monk Yun Rou will show how that system derived from the use of battlefield weapons, was also practiced without those weapons for convenience, and has become a way for us to triumph in the modern battlefield, not those in far-away lands but those inside our body and mind. In true Daoist fashion, authentic, martial tai chi begins by rectifying issues in our thinking and understanding and expands outward along the paths of the nervous system to allow us to refine our movement, rectify our physical health, and expand the limitations of movement we encounter with age. This will be a hands-on workshop, where we will explore tai chi’s major concepts, specifically rooting, relaxing, the four directions of movement known as peng, liu, ji, and an, and finally silk reeling, called chan si jin. We will do some solo exercises and partner exercises, too. A lot will be shared in the short time we have, but the workshop will offer a solid overview of traditional components of the art.

Monk Yun Rou (Arthur Rosenfeld) is a 40-year practitioner and tai chi master instructor. His 2010 National Public Television show, Longevity Tai Chi was watched by nearly 200,000,000 people in the US and Canada. A long-time student of authentic, traditional Chen Family tai chi, he studies in the lineage of Chen Fa Ke and Chen Quanzhong and is noted for his interest in traditional Chinese battlefield weapons. in 2014 he was the only Westerner on the dais with the heads of the five tai chi families at the International Tai Chi Symposium in Kentucky. He teaches in South Florida and around the world.

SESSION 6A: RELEASE, BOREDOM, AND NONACTION (14-15:45)

Maximizing the Void: The Immortal Approach of the Sage Han-Jing—Huang Ching-Ya

The sage Han-Jing was a senior official of Shanghai in the 1930s and a well-known newspaper publisher in Taiwan in the 1950s and 1960s. In 1980, he became the first chief emissary of the Lord of Universe Church. Because of his physical weakness, he began to learn meditation when he was very young. After more than 60 years of practical exercise, he not only got rid of the health problems, but also was still bright and strong at the advanced age. From “nature is the law of Dao” in the Daode jing, he developed a set of meditation methods that promoted health, referred to as “the Chinese orthodox meditation.” This meditation method takes “natural nonaction” as the highest guiding principle. It does not need any artificial power, and does not adjust breathing, guiding qi, or focusing on an acupoint. It takes a long time to work, but it is free from the possibility of going astray. The most prestigious is through the “opening the heavenly gate” to absorb the true-yang qi between heaven and earth, so that the turbidity of the body is naturally discharged, which is much beneficial to health.

The Transformative Experience of Time in Guqin Music: Daoist and Western Aestheticss—Loreta Poškaitė

Music is fundamentally an art of time, and its performing/listening gives the meaning to time and one‘s being in the world and in relation to numinous, which is especially evident in Daoism. The paper examines the selected Daoist musical concepts from one of the most important texts on guqin performance and aesthetics Xishan qinkuang 溪山琴况 (The State of Guqin art of the Xishan School) by the guqin master Xu Shangying 徐上瀛 (1582-1662). The analysis concentrates on their relation to Daoist aesthetics and self-cultivation practices, as well as their comparisons with Western aesthetics of boredom, manifested in the philosophy of music by John Cage as so-called founder of this aesthetics. It aims to reveal the similarities and differences between Daoist treatment of qin music and Cage’s concept of ecological/naturalistic music, considering their seemingly common ground: the particular attention to the sounding/moving silence and search for the possibility of widening one’s auditory scale and experience through its reflection, which is enabled by the slowing of time in the boredom.

The Role of Time in Releasing Tension in Survivors of Natural Disasters—Erna Wenus

When time is in short supply, it’s crucial to have an active realization of time. We're all familiar with the feeling of “having no time.” It puts us under stress—a feeling of being pulled into many directions at once, straining the strands of our energetic fabric. Feeling as though we have no time puts us in emergency mode. In my presentation, I will show how the ear acupuncture protocol used by the National Acupuncture Detoxification Association (NADA) can help patients who are stuck in perpetual emergency mode sleep better, emerge from isolation, and experience relief from tension and stress. Acupuncture helps them shift out of a state of mind in which they cannot accurately perceive time, leaving them with a sense of constant pressure. The protocol helps trauma victims switch out of this state into one where they can evaluate next steps to move toward recovery.

SESSION 6B: RITUAL AND MEDITATION (14-15:45)

炼道入圣与宋元道教度人方式之变迁 — 郭武 // Changes in Daoist Self-Cultivation and Rituals of Salvation in the Song and Yuan—Guo Wu

本文通过考察唐末五代内丹修炼之“炼道入圣”阶段的内容,及其在后世全真道中的废止,而讨论了宋元道教“度人”方式的发展变化。作者认为:“炼道入圣”乃是唐末“钟吕金丹道”所倡内丹修炼的重要内容,属于“炼神合道”以后继续积累功德、待诏升天的阶段,旨在督促修炼有成者努力收授门徒、弘扬道法;不过,这个阶段的“度人”方式却显得不够开放,以致后世道教典籍很少提及它。宗承钟吕的全真道亦未继承这种“度人”方式,而是采用了一种“大乘”式的度人模式;这种“大乘”模式在“受度需求”颇为强烈的金元乱世,导致了全真道教团发展的巨大成功。

丹道图像的时间之维— 杨贺淞 // The Dimension of Time in the Internal Cultivation Charts—Yang Hesong

丹道图像是道教炼养体系视觉化表达的载体,内蕴着道教宇宙论、形神论、性命论,亦是道教⾝体观的直观呈现。作为⼀种道教⽂化载体的丹道图像,对抽象时间的理解与刻画是极具特殊性的,体现了道教视觉⽂化的独特魅⼒。从时间的角度看,丹道图像实质上是⼀种时间感知活动的仪式性表述,⽽不是一种将时间客体化的抽象性思辨,其所表达的是在逆与顺、分与合、物与道的仪式关联中“时间性地”炼养实践。对丹道图像时间之维的合理阐释,不仅有助于我们对道教养⽣⽂化的深⼊认识,更有助于为现代年轻⼈提供⼀种对时间碎⽚化问题的解决之道。因此,本⽂尝试从时间的维度切入,从丹道图像中提炼出具有对现代⽣活仍可资利⽤的养⽣实践内容。

民间傩仪中的道教渊源和流变 :以江苏高淳地区的跳五猖为例 — 姚义斌 // The Origin and Evolution of Daoist Origins and Transformations of Popular Funerals: A Case Study of the Five Wild Jumps in the Gaochun Area of Jiangsu Province—Yao Wenbin

跳五猖”是广泛流行于中国南方地区的民间傩仪活动形式。作为民间信仰形式的傩与道教虽然在发展道路和表现形态上迥然有异,但文化上的共生性决定了它们在发展过程中互融互补,在诸多方面呈现出共性特点,这种现象不仅在史籍中有所记载,而且在当今各地傩仪和道教科仪式中也常见类似内容。本文即是以江苏地区的民间傩仪形态之一的“跳五猖”为样本,考察“跳五猖”中的道教元素,以说明道教在傩文化中的浸润影响及其适变。

SESSION 6C: WORKSHOP (14-15:45)

Warp, Weft and Way—Denise Meyer

In modern physics, space-time is a four dimensional continuum. Taijiquan invites an exploration of the warp and weft of space. The slow practice of form and tuishou (push-hands) allow one to define one’s relationship to space and its many textures. This is an essential foundation to embodying the continuum of spacetime, and bringing together wuwei and martial applications. In this workshop, participants will explore the ephemeral aspects of space in taijiquan through solo and two-person qigong.

Denise Meyer started studying Taiji over twenty years ago, first with world push hands champion Stephen Watson, then with Chen Man Ching’s senior student, Maggie Newman. She has also been heavily influenced by work with Rick Barrett, Ken Van Sickle, Robert Mann, and Wei-Ming Chen. A classical saxophonist by training (Northwestern University) and founder and publisher of a boutique press (Eirini Press) focusing on nonduality, she has published books by Lawrence LeShan, Jonathan Bricklin, and others. She has worked in public relations and communications as an independent consultant and at Yale University for over 20 years. She is working on a book, From Masters to Mortals: The Taiji Path to Nonduality, based on experiences of modern practitioners whose changes in body, mind and spirit are a window to the Dao.

SESSION 7A: TIME AND TIMELESSNESS (16-17:45)

Time and Space Within Daoism’s Seamless Worldview—Joseph L. Pratt

Daoism offers a complete explanation of reality, starting from an ultimate reality of Emptiness, called the “Dao,” followed by the One, a totality capable of encompassing all of conventional reality, and then by the Two, the YinYang dynamic reflecting the basic interplay between the Dao and the One at the next, essentially energetic level, and finally by the Three, allowing for three-dimensional form and a further fundamental YinYang dynamic between the energetic YinYang Two and the material Form Three. This seamless cosmology and metaphysics, from an absolute Nothingness to a play of form, explains how consciousness and cognition exist as the higher energetic “Two” in relation with form as the lower material “Three.” It also shows how time and space are a function of form as well as this cognition and most importantly this consciousness. Daoism finally explains how time and space have a Yin circular aspect—the “here and now,” allowing for the direct or immediate path to the transcendent One and ultimately the Dao, and a Yang linear aspect, which is the standard one temporal and three spatial dimensions, which are necessary for the Yin circular aspect and ultimately the experience of the Dao to be meaningful.

Timeless Relational Self-Cultivation: Ren and WuweiDona Cady
The ideals of appropriate behavior for women in premodern China were widespread throughout much of the East Asian world. By looking closely at Confucian and Daoist concepts of ren and wuwei with regards to the body, society, and time as referenced in classical texts such as the Zhuangzi, Daode jing, and Lunyu, and particularly the classic literature of heroic women, we can explore the relational nature of self-cultivation. This self-cultivation through improvisational imagination creates an instantaneous natural flow from heart-mind to consummate action where time stands still in the moment of thought-action. Even today, traditional philosophical resources are being drawn upon in response to current cultural and political dynamics, breaking down the nei/wai, inner/outer, female/male historical “geography” of constrained relational horizons to form new geographies of significant familial and social roles and relationships. This continuing commitment to heart-mind-body personal cultivation and timeless co-creating relationality is both the root and the height of wisdom. This paper examines the Confucian and Daoist concepts of ren and wuwei with regards to the exemplar classical warrior woman Mulan and connect these traditional philosophical concepts to the present day thought-action of self-cultivation.

 

Tao Yuanming and Thoreau: A Taoist Poetics of Affinity with Nature—Yongchun Cai

Tao Qian is one of the four greatest traditional poets in the history of Chinese literature and Henry David Thoreau is considered one of the most significant American writers in the 9th century. While far apart in terms of times, countries and cultural background, Tao Qian and Thoreau are placed under investigation in their literary works to find the stunning common ground in sharing the Taoist idea of Nature in presenting their Taoist philosophy in thought, poetics and lifestyle. This paper will examine, in a comparative perspective, how Tao Qian and his counterpart Thoreau love to find philosophical inspirations from the Traditional Chinese Taoism to enrich their literary revelations of the most crucial cornerstones of Taoism, which are manifested in the exploration of unity of heaven and man, return to nature and simplicity, opposition to artificiality, rejection of material desire, procurement of free state of mind, advocating of non-action, retiring from degraded society, and individual freedom in recluse. Not only are the similarities of the authorial Taoist doctrines pursued and examined but the differences in personal cultivation between the Chinese and American writers are also discussed in light of comparison.

SESSION 7B: LONG LIFE AND DESTINY (16-17:45)

太平经的生命观 // The Understanding of Life in the Taiping jingHo Sen Keat

东汉道教之巨著《太平经》除了阐发其社会政治思想,企图创造一个太平的社会局面之外,同时继承先秦、汉代道家的生命观,并有所创新,反映了《太平经》热衷探讨并关怀生命思想的趋势。本文将从生命的来源及形成过程、生命的本质及养生思想这三个方面,探讨《太平经》的生命观。其中,《太平经》继承了先秦道家的道生万物的思想,元气在其过程中扮演了重要的角色。此外,《太平经》里和气的存在、传类的思想说明了生命的可持续性的如何可能,可谓《太平经》生命观的一大特色。关于《太平经》的生命本质,精神成为了个体生命存在的关键。《太平经》认为个体生命终有结束的一天,于是提出了“得度”的思想内容,人们可以通过“为善”、“守一”的途径成仙成神。

Locating the Right Time in Chinese Fate Calculation—Yunwoo Song

The art of fortunetelling is an art about time. When one is making a forecast, one needs to make, however vague it may be, a reference to a particular time in the future. Or, if the purpose of divination is to find a source of present misfortune, a particular time in the past is identified as a cause. In this sense, the history of early Chinese divination may be viewed from a perspective of sophistication of skills pinpointing the times relevant for divination. This paper describes two ways in which such sophistication occurred. The well-known Four Pillars method is an art that puts emphasis on the past; it sees the time of birth as the single most important factor affecting a person’s fate. The Liuren method, on the other hand, calculates the auspiciousness of a time in the future with little reference to what happened in the past. The history of these two methods shows that, although their emphasis is different, they both aspired to locate the right time within the context of the cosmological clock.

Dao and Time: Predict the Unpredictable—Terry Ko

My sample scenario is based on a service that was conducted during early 2012 for a young couple in Los Angeles. They had been married for more than five years and within this time, they had been trying to bear a child without any success. Later I draw a divination and interpretation has indicated that a red triangle object must be remove, since it is creating a negative energy. A year after the object was removed, their daughter was born. One and a half years after that, the couple came to me again seeking answers with regard to the possibility of bearing a son. I then drew two divinations based on their birthdays that showed they would have a chance to bear a son in the year 2016. Soon after, their son was born in December of that year.

SESSION 7C: PAINTING DAO (16-17:45)

Understanding the Yijing through Paintings—Cristina Bertrand

The Yijing is one of the oldest books in the world, and through the millennia its wisdom has shaped the core of Chinese culture and civilization. It also constitutes a systematic ethical guide aimed at instilling in human beings moral values that are in harmony with nature. Its principles and guidance are a gift from Chinese sages to the world. Due to its graphic symbolism (trigrams and hexagrams), and sometimes obscure language, it hasn’t achieved the same dissemination as other books of Chinese philosophy, such as the classics or Confucian books. Its nature-based symbology facilitates an understanding through images or landscapes, accessible to everyone (mountains, lakes, rivers, thunder, forest, etc). Therefore, the paintings will forward an understanding of the Yijing. Expressionism comes from the Latin words “ex,” meaning “out,” and “preso,” meaning “to grasp.” Expressionism in art aims to grasp or capture something that is hidden and take it out or make it visible. A deep knowledge of the subject is needed in order to uncover inner meaning. The expressionistic paintings shown in the Art Session will unveil the inner essence of the ancient Chinese wisdom contained in the Yijing.

Zhang Sanfeng, Where Are You?—Harald Gsaller

According to legend, Zhang Sanfeng is one of the originators of Taijiquan. Some sources claim that he lived as a hermit in the Wudang Mountains around 1000 CE, others date him to about 1360 CE. Either way, he reportedly transformed into a perfected person, after which he repeatedly appeared variously to Daoist adepts in trance until well into the 19th century. In this lecture-performance, I show up someone similarly untraceable today in Italy somewhere southeast of Rome. We find him doing exercises under pines of a stately house in the Latium; we find him amongst the wild horses of the high plains of the Monti Prenestini (some famous spaghetti westerns have been filmed there). We observe the shimmering blinking of the lights of the mountain villages at night occasionally mixed with the barking of dogs. Our hero seems to be a true master in the Daoist arts of sitting meditation and internal alchemy. I also find an impish report of Zhang Sanfeng closely inspecting house antenna systems in a small northern Italian town (Friuli?, Veneto?) and mention, in passing, the Wudang Mountains. I am a visual artist and writer, based in Vienna, Austria.

Daoism and Chinese Folklore—Diana Shui Iu Wong

A native of Hong Kong, I have studied Chinese painting and calligraphy since childhood,, then at various academic institutions, including the Chinese University of Hong Kong, the Academy of Fine Arts in Rome and various other European centers. In Los Angeles since the 1970s, I have founded the Merging One Gallery in Santa Monica and been actively involved with community activities, initiating projects and curating art shows. My paintings reflect the ancient Chinese philosophy of the Yijing, exploring and expressing the introspective qualities of human psyche as well as the esoteric elements of change. I also work closely with patterns of Chinese folk art. The presentation introduces my work in relation to concepts of time, change, and the intuitive present—being true and fearless.

SUNDAY

SESSION 8A: THE ALCHEMY OF WANG LIPING (9-10:45)

Basic Techniques of Daoist Internal Mastery: The Methods for Attracting Immortality—Scotty Ellis

Wang Liping, as shown in his book, for the first time available in English under the title Daoist Internal Mastery, works with a time-honored, complex set of methods of Daoist internal alchemy. The work covers a lot of ground, but typically begins with a set of methods known as yinxian fa or “methods for attracting immortality.” Its twelve techniques form the foundation of Wang's practice. In this presentation, I pay describe the basic breathing techniques (xi, jun, chang), postural requirements, internal cues, and generally recommended guidelines used in these methods.

Working with Time in Neidan Practice—Nathan Brine

To achieve success with the alchemical work, time needs to be mastered. Drawing on experiences studying with Wang Liping and teaching Daoist internal alchemy, I discuss the strategic significance of time in neidan praxis. We live our life embedded in cycles of time: sleep, digestion, hormones as well as days, months, and years. Harmonizing with these temporal rhythms is healthy but alchemical work breaks them to establish new ones. Thus, practice sessions follow a certain sequence: activity, stillness, birth of something new. The practitioner begins by regulating the energetic cycles inside the body. Using various breathing and mental techniques, he or she patterns the chaos of the inner landscape. Next he enters stillness, used to reset the inner body rhythms and kick-start new alchemical cycles. These are often experienced as energetic movement, such as the elixir field getting active, the meridians opening, or essence (jing) shifting inside the torso. This time-based work with qi is a vital aspect of the alchemical process.

Timed Practiced in “The Secret of the Golden Flower”—Mark Bartosh

In his newly translated book Daoist Internal Mastery, internal alchemy master Wang Liping teaches how to work with the Golden Flower or Spirit Light. In this presentation I explore what exactly this light is and how one works with it. I also examine how it relates to the elixir and embryo and what the correct timing in the firing process is. “The Secret of the Golden Flower” presents many examples, showing that the Spirit Light is both internal and external, each form with its own function. In practice, adepts must capture and condense it into a small millet-size grain, which has two uses and is fired internally. The firing process in many ways connects to processes taken from external alchemy, its metaphors providing a vivid picture of the process. In addition, the practice also closely relates to the cultivation of inner nature and life-destiny, core concepts in the text as well as in Master Wang’s work.

Cosmic and Human Time in the Lingbao bifa—Livia Kohn

The Lingbao bifa (Conclusive Methods of Numinous Treasure), in close connection with the Zhong-Lü chuandao ji (Record of the Dao Trasmission from Zhongli Quan to Lü Dongbin), is a key text of the main Song tradition of internal alchemy and also a major source of Wang Liping’s system. It presents a complex vision of time both in terms of cosmology and cultivation. Cosmologically it outlines the ongoing dynamics of yin and yang in the course of the year and of the sun and the moon in days and months. Besides using various categories quite alien to Western time-keeping, it also links the hours of the day with the twelve earthly branches and the eight trigrams, establishing an intricate cosmological framework. In terms of cultivation, it asserts that certain qi activities during particular hours and days require practical enhancement or reduction. People fall ill and die early because they fail to observe these. Working properly with them as described in the practices, on the other hand, opens the path to the internal elixir and leads to health, longevity, and immortality.

SESSION 8B: NATURE, LIFE, AND KNOWLEDGE (9-10:45)

知常曰明:老子“明德”研究 — 郭清香 // To Know Constancy Is Wisdom: Mingde in the LaoziGuo Qingxiang

道德经中,老子对智的态度明显是消极的,如“智慧出,有大伪”、“绝圣弃智,民利百倍”(郭简作“绝智弃弁(辨)”)、“故以智治国,国之贼;不以智治国,国之福”。老子之所以对“智”有如此激烈的态度,并不因为老子反对对道的体认与认识——“知”,而是因为在老子看来世人说推崇的“智”恰恰是违背道的不正确的认识。真正的智体现在对道的认识和把握,老子用“明”以与世人之“智”相区别。明是最高的智慧与境界,也是修身的正确道路。“知常曰明”既肯定了人体道的可能性,也给出了体道的方法。“明”在老子乃至道家的视野中,具有本体论、认识论和修养论等多重意义,是理解老子思想的一个关键。

淮南鴻烈展示之大道天時與人和 — 潘樹仁 

The Time of Nature and the Harmony of the People of Dao in the Huainanzi—Abraham Shue Yan Poon

大道從無到有,天之德生生不息產出萬物,時間是宇宙之直線,分秒向前,不可能折返。《淮南鴻烈》<卷一原道>清楚展示大道之創生,時間空間之交錯現象,多角度邏輯性探索大道演變。<卷三天文>首次列出廿四氣節,與現代西方設定吻合。提到天氣變化,也合乎科學,例如行雷是陰陽電子磨擦而成「陰陽相薄,感而為雷」。<卷五時則>詳述季節,提醒人們依時作息,體現天人合一,理論與實踐並行。人生苦短,對比宇宙只是滄海一粟,大道啟示人類要好好存活,從不同方面開啟自然智慧,讓人們與時空、其他人和合,踐履自然和合之修煉境界。<卷二十泰族>:「七竅交爭以害其性,日引邪欲而澆其身夫調和。」養性修真保命護生,光陰過得有意義和逍遙自在。

 

庄子的生死观与时间意识: 以孟孙才吊母故事为例 — 邹蕴

Life, Death, and Time in the Zhuangzi: The story of Mengsun Cai Mourning his Mother—Zou Yun

庄子·大宗师篇智慧地处理了方内和方外的关系,并且显著地体现了庄子齐同生死的时间观念。首先,孟孙才之所以居丧不哀、和众人行丧礼有异,这是因为他已经由“小年”、“大年”这种世俗世界对于时间的认知进入到“道”的视域来看待时间;其次,在《庄子》的其它丧葬故事中,故事的主人公都不如孟孙才那样把时间遗忘得如此彻底:他不仅将生死存亡视为一个整体,并且认为生和死没有先后之别,所以不论生死都无法引起他的快乐或痛苦;最后,尽管孟孙才对待生死没有分别,但时间仍然还有它的意义,也就是“安排而去化”。时间以“化”的方式体现在不同生命之间的变形与交替,从而维持了主体生生不息的活力。

以知为时:《庄子》真人的时间观及其现代价值 周山东 // Take True Understanding as Time: Time in Zhuangzi’s Perfected and Its Modern Value—Zhou Shandong

在自然时间观成为主流的现代社会,社会时间观的价值一直被蒙蔽。其实,庄子早就区分了社会时间与自然时间,明确提出“以知为时”的命题,彰显了“时”与“道”、“知时”与“得道”的本体联系。庄子称真人能“以知为时”,寓示着真人从“道”的视野对“时间”之有限性与无限性、间断性和连续性、绝对性和相对性进行审视,以此达到对“时间”的真知。在此前提下,真人既能顺应时间规律“安时而处顺”,也能把握时间规律“与时俱化”,更能明辨时间规律“逍遥以游世”。庄子真人“以知为时”的时间观,以情境直觉与实践的方式突破了自然时间观,赋予人类把握时间的主体性,为现代人实现对时间的自由提供了宝贵的启示。

SESSION 8C: WORKSHOP (9-10:45)

The Practice and Cosmology of Xingyi Quan: A Mind Body Qigong Beyond Time 形意拳与道教多元宇宙

Ken Cohen 高汉

Xingyi Quan, like Taijiquan, is part of the Inner Family of Martial Arts 内家拳 It is a physical rendition of the Daoist Multiverse: Five Phase Movements that exercise the lungs, liver, kidneys, heart, and spleen while invoking the powers of metal, water, wood, fire, and earth. The practitioner exercises his/her body to improve health, finds stillness within movement, and achieve unity with the creative power of the Dao. Eternity and impermanence are reconciled as time disappears. Instead of Long Life Without Aging 长生不老, with dedicated practice the Daoist realizes a state 常生不老, Always Born Not Aging because mind is ever fresh and renewed moment by moment. Ken Cohen will share the legacy of Sun Lutang 孙禄堂, one of the greatest Xingyi Quan masters of all time, strongly influenced by Wudang Daoism. You will learn core practices, including San Ti Shi 三体式, Standing Meditation based on harmony of Heaven, Earth, and Human; as well as Metal and Wood movements. He will also introduce how Daoist cosmology, especially the Yi Jing’s Luo River Chart 洛书, has remained a feature of Xingyi Quan training. No experience necessary. Beginners welcome.

Ken Cohen (高汉,大海居士) has been practicing Qigong and Neijia Quan for fifty years. He studied Daoism with Michel Strickmann, Edward Schafer, and Wolfram Eberhard at the University of California, Berkeley and was the only apprentice to Longmen Sect Daoist Abbot Huang Gengshi 黄庚世 (1910-1999) of Xiqiao Mountain 西樵山.

SESSION 9A: TIME IN POLITICS (11-12:45)

Heavenly Clockwork: Predicting Imperial Unification in the Pre-QinMarnixWells

Daoism has long revered the Dipper constellation (Dou), seen to revolve around the north polar axis. Its annual procession was used to mark the seasons, according to a late Warring States work, ‘Pheasant Cap Master’ (Heguanzi). The celestial pole was believed to be the seat of the heavenly emperor ‘Grand Unity’ (Taiyi). The seven stars of the Dipper, plus two others, make up ‘Nine Augustans’ (Jiu-Huang), gods celebrated by Chinese communities in South-east Asia in the ninth lunar month. Pheasant Cap predicts the coming of a Ninth Augustan to restore centralised unity to the world. To do this, a three-hundred-and-sixty day solar calendar, ‘Heavenly Melody’s Daily Numbering’ (Tianqu Rishu), will be implemented. It is a timetable for reporting to the Son of Heaven by officials, by fractal divisions of a 360-day year into graded 5-, 10-, 15-, 30-, 45-, 60- and 72-day periods. Officials in charge of ‘commanderies and counties’ (junxian) were to replace hereditary lords of the Warring States. Corrupt and nepotistic rulers were doomed. Meritocracy was to be the order of the new age, ordered by the mathematics of the universe in “Law (Fa) begotten of the Way (Dao).”

Time, Timeliness, and Timelessness: Female Emperor Wu Zhao’s Inordinate Preoccupation with Daoist HorologyN. Harry Rothschild

She who sets the clocks, rules the world. For female emperor Wu Zhao and other rulers in medieval China, control of time was a significant part of statecraft. Wu Zhao’s inordinate preoccupation with time is evident in her choice of Zhou for her dynastic epithet, her public announcements to mark the first of the month (gao shuo 吿朔), her frequent inauguration of new reign eras, and her employment of an Indian horological specialists. Bringing Wu Zhao’s engagement with Buddhist horology into clearer resolution, both Antonino Forte and Joseph Needham have convincingly argued that the “Wheel for Reporting Double Hours” in Wu Zhao’s Mingtang complex contained jackwork and escapement almost 400 years before Su Song’s famous astronomical clock—testimony to the female sovereign’s strenuous effort to establish dominion over time. Less attention has been given to her interest in and utilization of Daoist horology. Analyzing Wu Zhao’s efforts to project agelessness and seek immortality, the Daoist presence in her reign era names and new characters, her connections with Laozi’s mother and the Queen Mother of the West, this paper will attempt to remedy this deficiency.

The Lives of Zhu Quan (1378-1448): A Chenghua 8 (1472) Edition of the Zhouhou Shenshu肘後神樞 and the Ming Prince’s Apotheosis as a Problem of Ritual Theory—Bony Schachter

Zhu Quan (1378-1448) is a key figure for students of Ming Daoism. Accordingly, his apotheosis as Nanji Chongxu Miaodao Zhenjun南極沖虛妙道真君(MDZJ) has much to offer scholars interested in the interface of ritual, theology, and material culture. Working in this line of inquiry, I selected a Chenghua 8 (1472) edition of the Zhouhou Shenshu肘後神樞(ZHSS), a calendrical work now stored in the National Library of China中國國家圖書館(Beijing), as the main research object through which to investigate the ritual aspects of Zhu Quan’s divine identity. In this paper I ask the following question: how to explain the ritual nature of Zhu Quan’s apotheosis as MDZJ, and what are the implications of this question for the way scholars of religion in general and Daoism in particular approach the theoretical aspects of ritual? In a dialogue with the field of Ritual Studies, I hypothesize on the normative aspects of Zhu Quan’s divine status as MDZJ, which I explain as reflecting Daoist technologies for the fabrication of perfected spiritual entities – or, using our own imperfect terminology, ancestors—through the acquisition of a very much desired and valued cultural commodity in the Chinese world, namely, longevity (shou ).

SESSION 9B: PERSONAL CULTIVATION (11-12:45)

生死问题与个人修炼: 李道纯的生死观—李大华 // Life and Death Issues and Personal Cultivation: The Case of Li Daochun—Li Dahua

道教是主张求生和长生的,但其中也包括了如何才是生,如何才是死,以及如何才算了却生死等等。李道纯以老子的生死观为出发点,也把长生不死作为崇高的价值,但他认为,如果能够勇敢地面对生死,外其生死,就能够生而不死。所以,他主张效天,忘我,忘生死,相信只有直面生死的人,才有机会解决生死。 “忘”的意义在于实现自我超越,也就是“自由”。庄子的随顺物化观念,在李道纯这里也悄悄地发生了变化,由随顺物化到不化,从达观地认同生死到超越生死,进而不死。其中,能够保证从忘生死到不死的,就是通过生命的修炼而得道。得了道,就分享到了永恒的生命,也就是以有限的生命投注到无限的道当中去。

炁功的個體修煉與精神轉變 —劉通敏 // Personal Cultivation and Spiritual Transformation in Qi Healing—Liou Tong-Miin

炁功的內涵涉及人與人之間的糾纏(或親和)以及人與無形世界(靈界或神)之間的糾纏作用。其關鍵為被調理者及調理者均須竭誠為之,方可超越善之誠心臨界值而生效,否則無效。此一精神能量轉變,源自調理者個人平日有關道德的修持與精神的煅煉。文中將闡釋炁功與五行(木火土金水)、五常(仁義禮智信)、老子三寶、儒釋道耶回教義精蘊(廿字真言)之間的關係; 此外,亦將說明炁功與靜坐、祈禱、後天氣、先天炁、靈肉共振、指向性疾病調理炁氣運行等等之間的關聯。如此方能明白炁功如何經由類量子糾纏機制影響精神、神經及內分泌系統,而達成身、心、靈的整合調理。(關鍵詞:意識與能量臨界狀態、廿字真言、天人親和、靈界、炁與氣)

基于道教长生问题的命与时间之思 — 李天啸 // Life and Time in the Daoist Understanding of Longevity—Li Tianxiao

长生”是基于道教对“生命”之所“命定”地要面临“有死紧迫”和“向死历程”的敏感而产生的愿求,其既是体现于生命上的“时间”问题,也是体现于时间上的“生命”问题。“生命”需要以“时间”来量度,即将包含生与死两个节点的“时间”历程,作为一个“生命”过程。反过来,“时间”需要“生命”来充实,这样的“时间”,不是钟表仪器上冰冷死板的“刻度”,也不是物理公式中抽象平均的“常数”,而是有“鲜活”、“具体”的感知与体验注入的“生命”流行过程。通过修道而长生,其本质即是把握“生命-时间”的“节律”与“火候”,从而复返造化之功。因而,“时间”蕴含着“生命造化”之玄机。

白隐慧鹤的时间感知: 以坐禅体验与见性体验为中心 — 宋琦 // Hakuin’s Take on Time: Zazen and Kensho Compared to Daoism—Song Qi

本研究以江户时代临济宗僧侣白隐慧鹤(1686-1769)为例,以其坐禅体验与见性体验为中心,考察他在修行过程中对时间的感知,并尝试分析这种修行方法在当今社会中的现实性意义。白隐禅师反对默照禅的立枯禅,重视公案禅与修行。他推动禅的庶民化,将晦涩难懂的禅语改写成通俗易懂的《坐禅和赞》,并留下上万幅妙趣横生的禅画,被称为日本临济宗中兴之祖。根据记载,白隐禅师在24岁那一年至少有两次见性体验,得到了“大死一番”、“大欢喜”这样的体验。然而到了26岁他患上禅病,后经丹田呼吸法的调理才得以恢复健康。这套方法来源于道教养气法,是一种在意念中将时间放慢,重视身体实感并重视控制呼吸的“内观”坐禅法。身体是不仅是体验“时间”与“非时间”的主体,也是这两者间的媒介。达成身体与世界的和谐以及个体的身与心之间的和谐,在白隐禅师的禅思想中十分重要。

SESSION 9C: WORKSHOP (11-12:45)

Re-Enchanting Internal Martial Arts—Scott Park Phillips

In this lecture-demo-participatory-happening we will sample Baguazhang 八卦掌 as theater, where the lotus elixir 蓮煉丹 is the source of extraordinary martial prowess. Through Baguazhang we will meet the child god Nezha 哪吒 and walk through mud, create a lotus body flowering out to infinity, and practice nixing 逆行—walking backwards inside of walking forwards. This anti-journey is reverse shamanism. Once outside of time 先天 (xiantian) we will fight dragons, cut away our flesh, return our bones, and meet Taiyi 太乙, Nezha’s spirit-father. Together we will re-enchant the physical with the imaginal. This delightful, belly laugh-inducing practice is serious. To become a Zhenren 真人 (Perfect Person) one must walk a reverse path! Wind-fire wheels provided.

Scott Park Phillips is the author ofPossible Origins, A Cultural History of Chinese Martial Arts, Theater and Religion (2016), and the forthcoming Tai Chi, Baguazhang, & the Golden Elixir, Internal Martial Arts Before the Boxer Uprising (2019). He lives in Colorado, where he teaches martial arts with improvisational theater, dance ethnology, and Daoist studies to children and adults.